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21st September in history

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455 – Emperor Avitus enters Rome with a Gallic army and consolidates his power.
1170 – Combined English and Irish forces, under the command of Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke and Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster seize Norse-Gaelic Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin into exile.
1217 – Livonian Crusade: The Estonian leader Lembitu and Livonian leader Kaupo the Accursed are killed in Battle of Matthew’s Day.
1435 – The Congress of Arras causes Burgundy to switch sides in the Hundred Years’ War.
1745 – Battle of Prestonpans: A Hanoverian army under the command of Sir John Cope is defeated, in ten minutes, by the Jacobite forces of Prince Charles Edward Stuart
1776 – Part of New York City is burned shortly after being occupied by British forces.
1780 – American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold gives the British the plans to West Point.
1792 – French Revolution: The National Convention declares France a republic and abolishes the absolute monarchy.
1843 – John Williams Wilson takes possession of the Strait of Magellan on behalf of the newly independent Chilean government.
1860 – Second Opium War: An Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Palikao.
1896 – Mahdist War: British forces under the command of Horatio Kitchener takes Dongola in the Sudan.
1898 – Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days’ Reform in China.
1939 – Romanian Prime Minister Armand Călinescu is assassinated by far-right legionnaires of the fascist paramilitary organization Iron Guard.
1942 – The Holocaust: On the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, Nazis send over 1,000 Jews of Pidhaitsi (west Ukraine) to Bełżec extermination camp.
1942 – In Poland, at the end of Yom Kippur, Germans order Jews to permanently evacuate Konstantynów and move to the ghetto in Biała Podlaska, established to assemble Jews from seven nearby towns, including Janów Podlaski, Rossosz and Terespol.
1942 – In Dunaivtsi, Ukraine, Nazis murder 2,588 Jews.
1942 – The Boeing B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight.
1953 – Lieutenant No Kum-sok, a North Korean pilot, defects to South Korea and is associated with Operation Moolah.
1961 – Maiden flight of the Boeing CH-47 Chinook transportation helicopter.
1964 – Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom.
1964 – The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world’s first Mach 3 bomber, makes its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.
1965 – The Gambia, Maldives and Singapore are admitted as members of the United Nations.
1971 – Bahrain, Bhutan and Qatar join the United Nations.
1972 – Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos signs Proclamation № 1081, placing the entire country under martial law and marking the beginning of his authoritarian rule.
1976 – Seychelles joins the United Nations.
1981 – Belize is granted full independence from the United Kingdom.
1984 – Brunei joins the United Nations.
1991 – Armenia is granted independence from Soviet Union.
2001 – Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200 km of Comet Borrelly.
2003 – Galileo mission is terminated by sending the probe into Jupiter’s atmosphere, where it is crushed by the pressure at the lower altitudes.
2013 – al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, killing at least 67 people.

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