1264 – Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured and forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, making Simon de Montfort the de facto ruler of England.
1509 – Battle of Agnadello: In northern Italy, French forces defeat the Venetians.
1608 – The Protestant Union is founded in Auhausen.
1610 – Henry IV of France is assassinated, bringing Louis XIII to the throne.
1643 – Four-year-old Louis XIV becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.
1747 – War of the Austrian Succession: A British fleet under Admiral George Anson defeats the French at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre.
1879 – The first group of 463 Indian indentured laborers arrives in Fiji aboard the Leonidas.
1931 – Ådalen shootings: Five people are killed in Ådalen, Sweden, as soldiers open fire on an unarmed trade union demonstration.
1935 – The Philippines ratifies an independence agreement.
1940 – World War II: Rotterdam is bombed by the German Luftwaffe.
1940 – World War II: The Battle of the Netherlands ends with the Netherlands surrendering to Germany.
1940 – The Yermolayev Yer-2, a long-range Soviet medium bomber, makes its first flight.
1943 – World War II: A Japanese submarine sinks AHS Centaur off the coast of Queensland.
1948 – Israel is declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel is attacked by the neighboring Arab states, triggering the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
1955 – Cold War: Eight Communist bloc countries, including the Soviet Union, sign a mutual defense treaty called the Warsaw Pact.
1963 – Kuwait joins the United Nations.
1970 – Andreas Baader is freed from custody by Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Ensslin and others, a pivotal moment in the formation of The Red Army Faction.
1973 – Skylab, the United States’ first space station, is launched.
2004 – The Constitutional Court of South Korea overturns the impeachment of President Roh Moo-hyun.
2012 – Agni Air Flight CHT crashes near Jomsom Airport in Jomsom, Nepal, after a failed go-around, killing 15 people.