851 – Battle of Jengland: Erispoe defeats Charles the Bald near the Breton town of Jengland.
1138 – Battle of the Standard between Scotland and England.
1485 – The Battle of Bosworth Field, the death of Richard III and the end of the House of Plantagenet.
1559 – Bartolomé Carranza, Spanish archbishop, is arrested for heresy.
1639 – Madras (now Chennai), India, is founded by the British East India Company on a sliver of land bought from local Nayak rulers.
1642 – Charles I raises his standard in Nottingham, which marks the beginning of the English Civil War.
1654 – Jacob Barsimson arrives in New Amsterdam. He is the first known Jewish immigrant to America.
1711 – Britain’s Quebec Expedition loses eight ships and almost nine hundred soldiers, sailors and women to rocks at Pointe-aux-Anglais.
1717 – Spanish troops land on Sardinia.
1770 – James Cook names and lands on Possession Island, and claims the east coast of Australia for Britain as New South Wales.
1777 – British forces abandon the Siege of Fort Stanwix after hearing rumors of Continental Army reinforcements.
1780 – James Cook’s ship HMS Resolution returns to England (Cook having been killed on Hawaii during the voyage).
1791 – Beginning of the Haitian Slave Revolution in Saint-Domingue.
1795 – The Constitution of the Year III is ratified by the National Convention
1798 – French troops land in Kilcummin harbour, County Mayo, Ireland to aid the Irish Rebellion.
1827 – José de la Mar becomes President of Peru.
1846 – The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is established.
1849 – The first air raid in history. Austria launches pilotless balloons against the city of Venice.
1864 – Twelve nations sign the First Geneva Convention.
1875 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg between Japan and Russia is ratified, providing for the exchange of Sakhalin for the Kuril Islands.
1910 – Korea is annexed by Japan with the signing of the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, beginning a period of Japanese rule of Korea that lasted until the end of World War II.
1922 – Michael Collins, Commander-in-chief of the Irish Free State Army, is shot dead during an Anti-Treaty ambush at Béal na Bláth, County Cork, during the Irish Civil War.
1932 – The BBC begins television broadcasting using John Logie Baird’s system.
1941 – World War II: German troops begins the Siege of Leningrad.
1942 – World War II: Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust of Kedros in Crete by German forces
1949 – The Queen Charlotte earthquake is Canada’s strongest since the 1700 Cascadia earthquake
1952 – The penal colony on Devil’s Island is permanently closed.
1961 – Ida Siekmann dies attempting to cross the Berlin Wall.
1962 – The OAS attempts to assassinate French president Charles de Gaulle.
1963 – X-15 Flight 91 reaches the highest altitude of the X-15 program (107.96 km (67.08 mi) (354,200 feet)).
1978 – The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FLSN) occupies national palace in Nicaragua.
1985 – Manchester Air Disaster sees 55 people killed when a fire breaks out on a commercial aircraft at Manchester Airport.
2006 – Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes near the Russian border over eastern Ukraine, killing all 170 people on board.
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