1765 – Prime Minister of England Lord Greenville resigned and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.
1774 – Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war.
1779 – American troops under General Anthony Wayne captured Stony Point, NY.
1790 – The District of Columbia, or Washington, DC, was established as the permanent seat of the United States Government.
1791 – Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.
1862 – David G. Farragut became the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.
1875 – The new French constitution was finalized.
1912 – Bradley A. Fiske patented the airplane torpedo.
1940 – Adolf Hitler ordered the preparations to begin on the invasion of England, known as Operation Sea Lion.
1942 – French police officers rounded up 13,000 Jews and held them in the Winter Velodrome. The round-up was part of an agreement between Pierre Laval and the Nazis. Germany had agreed to not deport French Jews if France arrested foreign Jews.
1944 – Soviet troops occupied Vilna, Lithuania, in their drive toward Germany.
1945 – The United States detonated the first atomic bomb in a test at Alamogordo, NM.
1957 – Marine Major John Glenn set a transcontinental speed record when he flew a jet from California to New York in 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds.
1969 – Apollo 11 blasted off from Cape Kennedy, FL, and began the first manned mission to land on the moon.
1973 – Alexander P. Butterfield informed the Senate committee investigating the Watergate affair of the existence of recorded tapes.
1979 – Saddam Hussein became president of Iraq after forcing Hasan al-Bakr to resign.
1981 – Mahathir Mohamad becomes Malaysia’s 4th Prime Minister.
1983 – Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.
1990 – The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.
1991 – Ukraine celebrates its first Independence Day.
1994 – Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts continue until July 22.
1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. His wife Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are also killed.
2015 – Four U.S. Marines and one gunman die in a shooting spree targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.