1382 – Louis the Great’s daughter, Mary, is crowned “king” of Hungary.
1462 – The Battle of Świecino (also known as the Battle of Żarnowiec) is fought during Thirteen Years’ War.
1620 – The Battle of Cecora (1620) is fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21).
1577 – The Treaty of Bergerac is signed between Henry III of France and the Huguenots.
1631 – Sweden wins a major victory at the Battle of Breitenfeld against the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years’ War.
1716 – Jean Thurel enlists in the Touraine Regiment at the age of 18, the first day of a military career that would span for over 90 years.
1761 – The Battle of Kosabroma is fought.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: The Invasion of Canada begins with the Siege of Fort St. Jean.
1778 – The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed. It is the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe (the Lenape or Delaware Indians).
1787 – The United States Constitution is signed in Philadelphia.
1793 – The Battle of Peyrestortes is fought.
1794 – The Battle of Sprimont is fought.
1809 – Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
1813 – The Second Battle of Kulm is fought.
1814 – Francis Scott Key finishes his poem “Defence of Fort McHenry”, later to be the lyrics of “The Star-Spangled Banner”.
1849 – American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
1859 – Joshua A. Norton declares himself “Norton I, Emperor of the United States.”
1861 – Battle of Pavón is fought.
1862 – American Civil War: George B. McClellan halts the northward drive of Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army in the single-day Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American military history.
1862 – American Civil War: The Allegheny Arsenal explosion results in the single largest civilian disaster during the war.
1894 – Battle of the Yalu River, the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War.
1900 – Philippine–American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham Jr., son of confederate general Benjamin F. Cheatham in the Battle of Mabitac.
1901 – The Battle of Blood River Poort is fought.
1901 – The Battle of Elands River is fought.
1908 – The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as passenger, crashes, killing Selfridge. He becomes the first airplane fatality.
1914 – Andrew Fisher becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time.
1914 – World War I: The Race to the Sea begins.
1916 – World War I: Manfred von Richthofen (“The Red Baron”), a flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, wins his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France.
1924 – The Border Protection Corps is established in the Second Polish Republic for the defence of the eastern border against armed Soviet raids and local bandits.
1928 – The Okeechobee hurricane strikes southeastern Florida, killing more than 2,500 people. It is the third deadliest natural disaster in United States history, behind the Galveston hurricane of 1900 and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
1939 – World War II: The Soviet Union joins Nazi Germany’s invasion of Poland during the Polish Defensive War of 1939.
1939 – World War II: German submarine U-29 sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous.
1940 – World War II: Following the German defeat in the Battle of Britain, Hitler postpones Operation Sea Lion indefinitely.
1941 – World War II: A decree of the Soviet State Committee of Defense, restoring Vsevobuch in the face of the Great Patriotic War, is issued.
1941 – World War II: Soviet forces enter Tehran marking the end of the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.
1943 – World War II: The Russian city of Bryansk is liberated from Germans.
1944 – World War II: Allied Airborne troops parachute into the Netherlands as the “Market” half of Operation Market Garden.
1944 – World War II: Soviet troops launch the Tallinn Offensive against Germany and pro independence Estonian units.
1944 – World War II: German forces are attacked by the Allies in the Battle of San Marino.
1948 – The Lehi (also known as the Stern gang) assassinates Count Folke Bernadotte, who was appointed by the United Nations to mediate between the Arab nations and Israel.
1948 – The Nizam of Hyderabad surrenders his sovereignty over the Hyderabad State and joins the Indian Union.
1949 – The Canadian steamship SS Noronic burns in Toronto Harbour with the loss of over 118 lives.
1957 – Malaysia joins the United Nations.
1965 – The Battle of Chawinda is fought between Pakistan and India.
1974 – Bangladesh, Grenada and Guinea-Bissau join the United Nations.
1976 – The first Space Shuttle, Enterprise, is unveiled by NASA.
1978 – The Camp David Accords are signed by Israel and Egypt.
1980 – After weeks of strikes at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, Poland, the nationwide independent trade union Solidarity is established.
1980 – Former Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle is killed in Asunción, Paraguay.
1991 – Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.
1992 – An Iranian Kurdish leader and his two joiners are assassinated by political militants in Berlin, Germany.
2006 – Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska erupts, marking the first eruption for the long-dormant volcano in at least 10,000 years.
2006 – An audio tape of a private speech by Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány is leaked to the public, in which he confessed that his Hungarian Socialist Party had lied to win the 2006 election, sparking widespread protests across the country.