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11th September in History

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1297 – Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scots jointly-led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray defeat the English.
1390 – Lithuanian Civil War (1389–92): The Teutonic Knights begin a five-week siege of Vilnius.
1541 – Santiago, Chile, is destroyed by indigenous warriors, led by Michimalonco.
1565 – Ottoman forces retreat from Malta ending the Great Siege of Malta..
1649 – Siege of Drogheda ends: Oliver Cromwell’s English Parliamentarian troops take the town and execute its garrison.
1697 – Battle of Zenta.
1708 – Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War. The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power.
1709 – Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands and Austria fight against France.
1714 – Siege of Barcelona: Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia, surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies in the War of the Spanish Succession.
1758 – Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War.
1775 – Benedict Arnold’s expedition to Quebec leaves Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1776 – British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Brandywine: The British celebrate a major victory in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
1786 – The beginning of the Annapolis Convention.
1789 – Alexander Hamilton is appointed the first United States Secretary of the Treasury.
1792 – The Hope Diamond is stolen along with other French crown jewels when six men break into the house where they are stored.
1800 – The Maltese National Congress Battalions are disbanded by British Civil Commissioner Alexander Ball.
1802 – France annexes the Kingdom of Piedmont.
1803 – Battle of Delhi, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, between British troops under General Lake, and Marathas of Scindia’s army under General Louis Bourquin.
1813 – War of 1812: British troops arrive in Mount Vernon and prepare to march to and invade Washington, D.C..
1814 – War of 1812: The climax of the Battle of Plattsburgh, a major United States victory in the war.
1852 – The State of Buenos Aires secedes from the Argentine Federal government, rejoining on September 17, 1861. Several places are named Once de Septiembre after this event.
1857 – The Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers and Paiutes massacre 120 pioneers at Mountain Meadows, Utah.
1893 – Parliament of the World’s Religions opens in Chicago, where Swami Vivekananda delivers his speech on fanaticism, tolerance and the truth inherent in all religions.
1897 – After months of pursuit, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of Kaffa, bringing an end to that ancient kingdom.
1903 – The first race at the Milwaukee Mile in West Allis, Wisconsin is held. It is the oldest major speedway in the world.
1905 – The Ninth Avenue derailment occurs in New York City, killing 13.
1914 – Australia invades New Britain, defeating a German contingent at the Battle of Bita Paka.
1919 – U.S. Marines invade Honduras.
1921 – Nahalal, the first moshav in Palestine, is settled as part of a Zionist plan to colonize Palestine and creating a Jewish state, later to be Israel.
1922 – The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.
1932 – Franciszek Żwirko and Stanisław Wigura, Polish Challenge 1932 winners, are killed when their RWD 6 airplane crashes during a storm.
1939 – World War II: Canada declares war on Germany, the country’s first independent declaration of war
1941 – Ground is broken for the construction of The Pentagon.
1941 – Charles Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech accusing the British, Jews and the Roosevelt administration of pressing for war with Germany.
1943 – World War II: German troops occupy Corsica and Kosovo-Metohija.
1943 – World War II: Start of the liquidation of the Ghettos in Minsk and Lida by the Nazis.
1944 – World War II: The first Allied troops of the U.S. Army cross the western border of Germany.
1944 – World War II: RAF bombing raid on Darmstadt and the following firestorm kill 11,500.
1945 – World War II: Australian 9th Division forces liberate the Japanese-run Batu Lintang camp, a POW and civilian internment camp on the island of Borneo.
1950 – Korean War: President Harry S. Truman approved military operations north of the 38th parallel.
1965 – Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Army captures the town of Burki, just southeast of Lahore.
1968 – Air France Flight 1611 crashes off Nice, France, killing 89 passengers and six crew.
1968 – The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) was founded.
1970 – The Dawson’s Field hijackers release 88 of their hostages. The remaining hostages, mostly Jews and Israeli citizens, are held until September 25.
1971 – The Egyptian Constitution becomes official.
1972 – The San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit system begins passenger service.
1973 – A coup in Chile headed by General Augusto Pinochet topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende. Pinochet exercises dictatorial power until ousted in a referendum in 1988, staying in power until 1990.
1974 – Eastern Air Lines Flight 212 crashes in Charlotte, North Carolina, killing 69 passengers and two crew.
1976 – A group of Croatian nationalists plant a bomb in a coin locker at Grand Central Terminal. After stating political demands, they reveal the location and provided instructions for disarming the bomb. The disarming operation are not executed properly and the bomb explodes, killing one NYPD bomb squad specialist.
1980 – Voters approve a new Constitution of Chile, later amended after the departure of president Pinochet.
1982 – The international forces that were guaranteeing the safety of Palestinian refugees following Israel’s 1982 Invasion of Lebanon leave Beirut. Five days later, several thousand refugees are massacred in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps.
1988 – The St. Jean Bosco massacre takes place in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
1989 – Hungary announces that the East German refugees who had been housed in temporary camps were free to leave for West Germany.
1992 – Hurricane Iniki, one of the most damaging hurricanes in United States history, devastates the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Oahu.
1997 – NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor reaches Mars.
1997 – After a nationwide referendum, Scotland votes to establish a devolved parliament within the United Kingdom.
1997 – Fourteen Estonian soldiers die in the Kurkse tragedy, drowning in the Baltic Sea.
2001 – Two hijacked aircraft crash into the World Trade Center in New York City, while a third smashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, in a series of coordinated suicide attacks by 19 members of al-Qaeda. In total 2,996 people are killed.
2007 – Russia tests the largest conventional weapon ever, the Father of All Bombs.

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