1431 – Judges’ investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government.

1718 – France declares war on Spain

1793 – 1st hot-air balloon flight in the US lifts off in Philadelphia, piloted by Jean Pierre Blanchard

1894 – New England Telephone and Telegraph installs the first battery-operated telephone switchboard in Lexington, Massachusetts.

1936 – The United States Army adopted the semi-automatic rifle.

1941 – Maiden flight by Canada’s British-built Avro Lancaster military plane

1951 – The United Nations headquarters officially opened in New York City

1969 – The supersonic aeroplane Concorde made its first trial flight, at Bristol.

1973 – Luna 21 launched, to Moon

1995 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Poliakov, 51, completed his 366th day in outer space aboard the Mir space station, breaking the record for the longest continuous time spent in outer space.