1914 – Britain declares war on Turkey and annexes Cyprus, occupied since 1878; the immediate reason is to keep it from being taken by Turkey

1916 – Emperors Wilhelm II (Germany) and Franz Jozef I (Austria-Hungary) establish the kingdom of Poland

1937 – Hitler informs his military leaders in a secret meeting of his intentions of going to war

1967 – ATS-3 launched by US to take first pictures of full Earth disc

1994 – Space probe Ulyssus completes 1st passage behind the Sun

2006 – Saddam Hussein, former president of Iraq, and his co-defendants Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Awad Hamed al-Bandar are sentenced to death in the al-Dujail trial for the role in the massacre of the 148 Shi’as in 1982.
2007 – China’s first lunar satellite, Chang’e 1 goes into orbit around the Moon.