1590 – The Sultan of Morocco launched his successful attack to capture Timbuktu.
1644 – The Ming Chongzhen emperor committed suicide by hanging himself.
1707 – At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated the Anglo-Portugese.
1792 – The guillotine was first used to execute highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier.
1846 – The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. The outcome of the war fixed Texas‘ southern boundary at the Rio Grande River.
1859 – Work began on the Suez Canal in Egypt.
1882 – French commander Henri Riviere seized the citadel of Hanoi in Indochina.
1915 – During World War I, Australian and New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli in Turkey in hopes of attacking the Central Powers from below. The attack was unsuccessful.
1925 – General Paul von Hindenburg took office as president of Germany.
1926 – In Iran, Reza Kahn was crowned Shah and choose the name “Pehlevi.”
1953 – Dr. James D. Watson and Dr. Francis H.C. Crick suggested the double helix structure of DNA.
1954 – The prototype manufacture of the first solar battery was announced by the Bell Laboratories in New York City.
1957 – Operations began at the first experimental sodium nuclear reactor.
1959 – St. Lawrence Seaway opened to shipping. The water way connects the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.
1961 – Robert Noyce was granted a patent for the integrated circuit.
1962 – The U.S. spacecraft, Ranger, crashed on the Moon.
1974 – Portuguese dictator Antonio Salazar was overthrown in a military coup.
1976 – Portugal ratified a constitution. It was first revised on October 30, 1982.
1982 – In accordance with Camp David agreements, Israel completed its Sinai withdrawal.
1983 – Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov invited Samantha Smith to visit his country after receiving a letter in which the U.S. schoolgirl expressed fears about nuclear war.
1983 – The Pioneer 10 spacecraft crossed Pluto’s orbit, speeding on its endless voyage through the Milky Way.
1988 – In Israel, John “Ivan the Terrible” Demjanuk was sentenced to death as a Nazi war criminal.
1990 – Sandinista rule ended in Nicaragua.
1990 – The U.S. Hubble Space Telescope was placed into Earth’s orbit. It was released by the space shuttle Discovery.
1992 – Islamic forces in Afghanistan took control of most of the capital of Kabul following the collapse of the Communist government.
1996 – The main assembly of the Palestine Liberation Organization voted to revoke clauses in its charter that called for an armed struggle to destroy Israel.