881 – Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Holy Roman Emperor

1541 – Santiago, Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia.

1554 – A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason.

1593 – Japanese invasion of Korea: Approximately 3,000 Joseon defenders led by general Kwon Yul successfully repel more than 30,000 Japanese forces in the Siege of Haengju.

1816 – The Teatro di San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is destroyed by fire

1851 – Edward Hargraves announces that he has found gold in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, starting the Australian gold rushes

1855 – Michigan State University is established.

World War II: Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats

1947 – The largest observed iron meteorite until that time creates an impact crater in Sikhote-Alin, in the Soviet Union

1954 – Lyons’s LEO produces a payroll report. It is the first time in history a computer is used in business.

1961 – Soviet Union launches Venera 1 towards Venus

2004 – The city of San Francisco, California begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in response to a directive from Mayor Gavin Newsom