1542 – Princess Mary Stuart succeeds her father James V and becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland at 6 days old

1751 – The first military academy in the world, the Theresian Military Academy, is founded in Austria

1812 – The French Invasion of Russia, led by Napoleon, officially ends

1900 – France and Italy sign a secret agreement by which Italy recognizes France’s right to exploit Morocco in return for France’s conceding her the same right in Tripoli

1903 – The Wright brothers attempt to fly the Wright Flyer for the first time at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

1955 – 16 countries join the United Nations, including Austria, Finland, Italy, and Spain

1962 – Mariner 2 makes 1st US fly-by of another planet (Venus)

1971 – The Pakistan Army executes over 200 of East Pakistan’s intellectuals during the Bangladesh Liberation War

1981 – Israel annexes Golan Heights (seized from Syria in war of 1967)

1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan & Jeana Yeager, took off from Edwards AFB, California on 1st non-stop, non-refueled flight around world