1851- Gail Borden announces invention of condensed milk

1862 – Alvan Graham Clark discovers the white dwarf star Sirius B, a companion of Sirius, through an 18.5-inch (47 cm) telescope now located at Northwestern University

1863- 1st black Civil War regiment, SC Volunteers, mustered into US army

1865 – American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, abolishing slavery and submits it to the states for ratification.

1915 – World War I: Germany is the first to make large-scale use of poison gas in warfare in the Battle of Bolimów against Russia.

1917 – World War I: Germany announces that its U-boats will resume unrestricted submarine warfare after a two-year hiatus.

1933 – Hitler promises parliamentary democracy

1950 – United States President Harry S. Truman announces a program to develop the hydrogen bomb.

1958 – James van Allen discovers radiation belt

1958 – US launches their 1st artificial satellite, Explorer 1

1961 – Ham the chimpanzee is 1st primate in space (158 miles) aboard Mercury/Redstone 2

1961 – USAF launches Samos spy satellite to replace U-2 flights

1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 14: Astronauts Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and Edgar Mitchell, aboard a Saturn V, lift off for a mission to the Fra Mauro Highlands on the Moon.