1214 – At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.
1245 – Frederick II was deposed by a council at Lyons after they found him guilty of sacrilege.
1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1689 – Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
1694 – The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.
1775 – Benjamin Rush began his service as the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army.
1777 – The marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious American colonists fight the British.
1778 – The British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
1789 – The Department of Foreign Affairs was established by the U.S. Congress. The agency was later known as the Department of State.
1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.
1866 – Cyrus Field successfully completed the Atlantic Cable. It was an underwater telegraph from North America to Europe.
1880 – Second Anglo-Afghan War: Battle of Maiwand: Afghan forces led by Mohammad Ayub Khan defeat the British Army in battle near Maiwand, Afghanistan.
1890 – Vincent van Gogh shoots himself and dies two days later.
1900 – Kaiser Wilhelm II makes a speech comparing Germans to Huns; for years afterwards, “Hun” would be a disparaging name for Germans.1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds.
1914 – British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.
1921 – Canadian biochemist Frederick Banting and associates announced the discovery of the hormone insulin.
1944 – U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.
1953 – The armistice agreement that ended the Korean War was signed at Panmunjon, Korea.
1955 – The Allied occupation of Austria ended.
1964 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.
1974 – The U.S. Congress asked for impeachment procedures against President Richard Nixon.
1980 – The deposed shah of Iran, Muhammad Riza Pahlavi, died in a hospital near Cairo, Egypt.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, DC, by U.S. President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1999 – The U.S. space shuttle Discovery completed a five-day mission commanded by Air Force Col. Eileen Collins. It was the first shuttle mission to be commanded by a woman.
2002 – Ukraine airshow disaster: A Sukhoi Su-27 fighter crashes during an air show at Lviv, Ukraine killing 85 and injuring more than 100 others, the largest air show disaster in history.
2005 – After an incident during STS-114, NASA grounds the Space Shuttle, pending an investigation of the continuing problem with the shedding of foam insulation from the external fuel tank.
2007 – News helicopters from Phoenix, Arizona television stations KNXV and KTVK collide over Steele Indian School Park in central Phoenix while covering a police chase.
2015 – At least seven people are killed and many injured after gunmen attack an Indian police station in Punjab.