1099 – The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.

1249 – Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots.

1534 – The Ottoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.

1558 – Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.

1754 – At the beginning of the French and Indian War, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French.

1787 – The U.S. Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, enacted the Northwest Ordinance, which established the rules for governing the Northwest Territory, for admitting new states to the Union and limiting the expansion of slavery.

1863 – Opponents of the Civil War draft began three days of rioting in New York City, which resulted in more than 1,000 casualties.

1919 – The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.

1941 – Britain and the Soviet Union signed a mutual aid pact, that provided the means for Britain to send war material to the Soviet Union.

1954 – In Geneva, the United States, Great Britain and France reached an accord on Indochina which divided Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.

1977 – Somalia declares war on Ethiopia, starting the Ogaden War.

2016 – Theresa May succeeds David Cameron as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; she is the second woman to do so, after Margaret Thatcher.