1542 – Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, is executed for adultery

1689 – William and Mary are proclaimed co-rulers of England.

1739 – Battle of Karnal: The army of Iranian ruler Nader Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India,Muhammad Shah

1880 – Thomas Edison observed what became known as the Edison Effect for the first time

1913 – The 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibetan independence following a period of domination by Manchu Qing dynasty and initiated a period of almost four decades of independence.

1920 – The League of Nations recognized the continued neutrality of Switzerland.

1931 – The British Raj completes its transfer from Calcutta to New Delhi.

1951 – Korean War: Battle of Chipyong-ni, which represented the “high-water mark” of the Chinese incursion into South Korea, commences.

1960 – With the success of a nuclear test codenamed “Gerboise Bleue”,France detonated its first atomic bomb & becomes the fourth country to possess nuclear weapons.

1990 – German reunification: An agreement is reached on a two-stage plan to reunite Germany.

2012 – The European Space Agency (ESA) conducted the first launch of the European Vega rocket from Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana